Mastering Optimization for Interaction to Next Paint (INP)

27 / Jun / 2023 by Ankit Gupta 0 comments

In the fast-paced digital landscape, delivering an exceptional user experience is a top priority for web designers and developers. To measure the user experience, in 2020, Google introduced Core Web Vitals.

As we know. the Core Web Vitals is a set of user-centric metrics introduced by Google to measure and check the user experience of web pages. These metrics focus on three key aspects: loading, interactivity, and visual stability. Core Web Vitals have gained significant relevance in the field of SEO as Google has announced that they will be incorporated as ranking signals in their search algorithm.

The three main Core Web Vitals metrics are:

  1. Largest Contentful Paint (LCP): This metric measures the time it takes for the largest content element to become visible to users. It reflects the perceived loading speed of the page.
  2. Cumulative Layout Shift (CLS): CLS quantifies the amount of unexpected layout shift that occurs during the page’s lifespan. It gauges visual stability by measuring how elements move or shift, which can lead to a frustrating user experience.
  3. First Input Delay (FID): FID measures the time it takes for a webpage to respond to a user’s first interaction, such as clicking a button or selecting a menu item. It assesses interactivity and responsiveness.

In the realm of Core Web Vitals, responsiveness is a key factor assessed by the First Input Delay (FID) metric. But, FID had its limitations, prompting the Google Chrome team to develop a more effective alternative. 

Interaction to Next Paint (INP), a new metric was introduced in 2022 to address these limitations. Google made INP available in their tools and collaborated with the community to test its effectiveness, signalling a significant step forward in measuring website interactivity. In short, INP measures the interactivity and perceived loading speed of web pages.

Starting in March 2024, Google is adding Interaction to Next Paint (INP) as the new go-to Core Web Vital metric for assessing responsiveness, replacing First Input Delay (FID). This shift signifies Google’s commitment to improving and refining the metrics that shape the evaluation of website performance and user experience.

Graphic showing the timeline of INP phases, starting from when Chrome announced experimental support for INP in May 2022, to today in May 2023 when Chrome is announcing that INP is now a non-experimental, pending Core Web Vital metric, and finally to March 2024 when INP becomes a stable Core Web Vital metric, replacing FID.

In this blog post, we will dive into the world of INP optimization and explore how it can elevate your web design game to new heights.

I. Understanding INP and Its Impact on User Experience:

To kickstart our exploration, let’s define INP and understand its role in measuring website interactivity and perceived loading speed. INP represents the time it takes for a web page to respond to user interactions and complete the next paint, visually updating the content. This metric impacts user experience, engagement, and even conversion rates. Research has shown a strong correlation between fast INP and positive user perceptions, making it a critical aspect of web design.

Interaction to Next Paint (INP)

II. Factors Influencing INP:

Now that we grasp the importance of INP, it’s time to delve into the key factors that influence it and should be considered during website development. By optimizing these factors, we can improve INP and enhance the user experience. Let’s explore them one by one:

  • JavaScript Execution: JavaScript plays a vital role in modern web applications, but it can also be a culprit for slow INP. We should optimize JavaScript, such as reducing render-blocking scripts and improving the execution speed.
  • CSS Efficiency: Efficient CSS can contribute to faster rendering and better INP. We should use the techniques like minification, compression, and prioritizing critical CSS to streamline CSS delivery and improve performance.
  • Network Latency: Network requests and server response times can have a significant impact on INP. You need to dive into the importance of optimizing network requests, leveraging caching strategies, and reducing server response times to enhance INP.
  • Rendering Pipeline: Understanding the rendering pipeline is crucial for minimizing layout shifts and improving INP. You need to uncover strategies to ensure a smooth rendering process, reducing unexpected content shifts that can disrupt the user experience.
  • Resource Loading and Prioritization: The order in which resources load can affect INP. Include things like lazy loading, resource preloading, and critical resource prioritization to deliver the most important content to users and improve INP.

III. Best Practices for Optimizing INP:

Now that we understand the factors influencing INP, let’s move on to practical tips and strategies for optimizing it. By implementing these best practices, you can enhance INP and provide a seamless user experience:

  • Code Minification and Compression: Reducing file sizes through techniques like code minification and compression can improve INP by reducing download times.
  • Asynchronous and Deferred Loading: Loading non-critical resources asynchronously or deferring their loading until after the initial paint can improve perceived performance and INP.
  • Lazy Loading: Lazy loading is an effective technique for deferring the loading of off-screen or non-essential content. By implementing lazy loading, you can reduce the initial page load times and improve INP.
  • Optimizing JavaScript Execution: Techniques such as code splitting, tree shaking, and asynchronous loading can optimize JavaScript execution, resulting in improved INP.
  • Prioritizing Critical Content: Prioritizing above-the-fold content ensures that essential elements are rendered, leading to faster rendering and better INP.

IV. Tools and Technologies for INP Optimization:

To assist you in optimizing INP, several tools and technologies are available. Let’s explore some of the key resources that can aid in achieving optimal INP and website performance:

  • Performance Testing Tools: Tools like Lighthouse, WebPageTest, or GTmetrix are invaluable for analyzing and measuring INP. These tools provide insights and recommendations to identify areas for improvement
  • Frameworks and Libraries: Popular frameworks and libraries often offer built-in optimizations for INP. Such as React’s Suspense or Angular’s lazy loading, which can streamline INP optimization.
  • Browser DevTools: Browser developer tools are indispensable for identifying performance bottlenecks and optimizing INP. These tools provide real-time insights into various performance metrics, aiding in the optimization process.
  • Content Delivery Networks (CDNs): CDNs play a crucial role in delivering website assets, reducing network latency, and improving INP. We’ll explore their benefits and how they contribute to performance.

V. Monitoring and Continuous Improvement:

Optimizing INP is an ongoing process that requires continuous monitoring and improvement. By implementing an iterative approach, you can enhance INP and deliver an exceptional user experience. Here are some key aspects to consider:

  • Performance Monitoring: Regular performance monitoring is essential for identifying and addressing issues affecting INP. We’ll discuss various monitoring techniques and tools that can help you stay on top of your website’s performance.
  • User Feedback and Testing: Gathering user feedback and conducting performance testing can provide valuable insights into INP-related pain points. By engaging users and understanding their experiences, you can uncover areas for improvement.
  • Iterative Optimization: We’ll emphasize the importance of an iterative approach to INP optimization. By analyzing data, implementing improvements based on insights, and iterating, you can enhance INP and user experience.

So, in this blog post, we’ve explored the concept of Interaction to Next Paint (INP) and its significance in web design. By optimizing INP, you can deliver a seamless user experience, enhancing engagement, conversion rates, and success. We’ve discussed the key factors influencing INP, best practices for optimization, and essential tools and technologies to aid you in your INP optimization journey. Remember, INP is not a metric; it represents your commitment to delivering a website that delights users with its interactivity and loading speed. Let’s focus on INP optimization and embark on a path to exceptional web design.



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